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C,I1.T.16 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 78, NUMBER 8 



THE FLORA OF BARRO COLORADO 
ISLAND, PANAMA 



BY 

PAUL C. STANDLEY 



SOU 




' CITY OF WASHINGTON 

\o. 8f PLIBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 20, 1927 



UNIVERSITY 
OF FLORIDA 
LIBRARIES 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 78, NUMBER 8 



THE FLORA OF BARRO COLORADO 
ISLAND, PANAMA 



BY 
PAUL C, STANDLEY 



WSSW 



(Publication 2914] 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 20, 1927 






BALTIMOEE, MD., 0. S. A. 



THE FLORA OF P.ARRO COFORADO LSFAXD, PANAMA 
Bv PAUL C. STANDLEY 

The logical position of the Republic of Panama as a center for edu- 
cational work has been recognized throughout the American countries 
ever since work was begun upon the Panama Canal. It is therefore 
particularly appropriate that there should be established here in the 
Canal Zone a laboratory for tropical research in the biological sciences. 
On April 17, 1923, Barro Colorado Island, in Gatiin Lake, was set 
aside by the Governor of the Canal Zone as a permanent reservation, 
to preserve in a primitive state the animal and plant life of the region. 
This result was accomplished largely through the personal interest 
and effort of Dr. Thomas Barbour and Mr. James Zetek, the latter 
now resident custodian of the island. 

Through the persevering effort of these two persons, also, there has 
been constructed upon the island a commodious and substantial labora- 
tory with ample living quarters, in which one may enjoy every bodily 
comfort while carrying on investigations of the highly diversified 
fauna and f^ora. Although secluded from the distractions of such 
towns as Colon and Panama, one is within easy reach of their con- 
veniences. From the windows of the laboratory, situated at the top 
of a high, steep slope, one may see all day long an ever-changing pro- 
cession of the world's ships, passing almost before the door. 

The laboratory is operated by the Institute for Tropical Research, 
under the direction of the National Research Council, and a cordial 
welcome is extended to scientists who wish to make serious use of its 
facilities. The expenses of administration are borne in part by sub- 
scriptions of scientific and educational institutions, and in part by 
private individuals. 

Barro Colorado, the largest island of Gatun Lake, covers approxi- 
mately six square miles, being about three miles in greatest length 
and width. It is of artificial origin, and before the water was turned 
into the lake formed merely a part of the hills along the Chagres River. 
Near the laboratory site ran one of the cuts of the old French canal, 
and close at hand was the town of Bohio, now submerged. 

The island consists of a mass of hills, steep in places, broken by 
ravines through which run a few small clear streams. Since the low 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 78, No. 8 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

land along the Chagres was submerged when the lake was filled, there 
is little swampy land on the island, although about the upper end 
there is a small amount of aquatic and semi-aquatic vegetation. The 
shore line, nearly 25 miles long, is very irregular, with innumerable 
indentations, in some of which are still standing the gray trunks of 
trees killed when the lower slopes of the hills were inundated. The 
highest part of the island is 537 feet above sea level, and 450 feet 
above the main level of Gatun Lake. 

Along its north side the island is separated from the mainland by a 
narrow channel, formed by a diversion canal of the old French days. 
Toward the south lies the main expanse of Gatun Lake, traversed by 
the Canal, and oii the distant shore is Frijoles, a station of the railroad 
which crosses the Isthmus from Colon to Panama. 

Most of Barro Colorado Island is covered with dense forest and 
jungle. In a few places there are patches of comparatively level, 
deforested land, the sites of recently cultivated clearings now aban- 
doned and overgrown with coarse weeds and second-growth shrubs. 
Within a few years these fields will be invaded by trees. 

It is probably true that little of the island is covered with really 
virgin forest, but the woods have been so long undisturbed that one 
will hardly recognize the fact. The large number of palms and tree 
ferns indicates that some of the slopes and ravines have never been 
wholly cleared, these being plants which disappear when the forest is 
opened and probably never reestablish themselves. In a region such 
as the Canal Zone, for over 400 years under European influence and 
during all this time an important trade route, it is difficult to prove 
that a given tract of land has not been cleared or put under cultivation 
at some time during these centuries, of whose detailed history we 
know so little. 

At any rate, the present plant covering of Barro Colorado has every 
aspect of the typical virgin forest occupying the humid lowlands of 
Central America, and is so rank and dense that in order to penetrate 
it a way must be cut with a machete. Many of the trees tower to a 
vast height, and have massive trunks swathed in a mantle of epiphytic 
vegetation that is still to be studied. Ropelike vines or lianas dangle 
from the crowns of the tallest trees, whose branches are loaded with 
aroids, bromeliads, orchids, and other epiphytes. 

Palms are unusually abundant, and many of the 22 genera known 
from the Canal Zone exist here. Ferns, particularly handsome tree 
ferns of the genus HcinitcUa, are plentiful, although in Central 
America most species of ferns must be sought at much higher eleva- 



NO. 8 FLORA OF J]ARK(J fOLCJKADO iSLAND STANDLFY 3 

tioiis. Species of Piper are numerous, also Araceae, Rubiaceae. and 
iWgnoniaceae, and most of the important groups of lowland Central 
American plants are represented. Thus f;ir the cry])to<>amic plants 
have been little studied, but there must be a wealth of fungi. The 
lichens, hepatics, and mosses of the tropics are not highly diversified 
at so low an altitude. 

The ])resent list of the ])lants known from Barro Colorado Island 
is based chiefly iipon j^ersonal collections and notes. I visited the 
island first on January 17, 1924, and collected that day about 300 
numbers of plants. Collecting was then difficult, because there was 
only a single, inadequate trail ; but now trails have been opened upon 
every hand, and may be extended easily, so there is little limit to one's 
range of activity. 

During November, 1925, I spent a week upon the island as the 
guest of the lalioratory. About 500 specimens of plants were taken, 
chiefly of the rarer and more interesting species, and notes were made 
of all the common plants observed. Trips were made each day in 
some new direction, hence it is believed that the list here offered is 
fairly representative of the flora. No one familiar with tropical con- 
ditions would venture to say that it is nearly complete, for by the 
very nature of its vegetation, such an area, with its many local or 
infrequent species, it is almost impossible to exhaust. Probably the 
next botanist who visits the island will be puzzled by the omission 
from this list of some plant which to him appears one of the common 
species. 

November did not seem to be an especially favorable period for 
collecting, and few plants were found in flower. Probably the begin- 
ning of the rainy season, in spring, would be the best time for botaniz- 
ing, although even then one must have good luck to find in proper 
condition some of the trees and shrubs that flower for only a brief 
season. The trees are difficult to study, since usually one must guess 
at their identity from their lofty branches as viewed from the ground, 
or sort the l)its of leaves and flowers strewn upon the soil. There 
must be several species of trees on Barro Colorado that are not enu- 
merated here, and more than a few shrubs and herbs. 

No botanist can fail to be interested by the tropical vegetation so 
luxuriantly displayed here, and it is to be hoped that many botanical 
workers will take advantage of the opportunity oft'ered for studying 
a characteristic area of tropical vegetation, at slight expense. This 
is an excellent place for making one's first acquaintance with tropical 
American plants, for no local flora of tropical America is better 



4 SMITHSONIAN MlSCliLLAN liOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 78 

known, and its variety is equal to that of most localities of similar 
altitude. 

For a study of the ecology of a typical area of lowland tropical 
vegetation, Barro Colorado offers exceptional advantages, and the 
morphology of certain groups of plants could be investigated profit- 
ably. Few indeed are the Central American localities in which it is 
possible to find comfortable lodging with the jungle but a few steps 
from the door. A large number of zoologists have visited Barro Colo- 
rado Island, some of them remaining several weeks or months to 
carry on their studies, and the list of published papers based upon 
work performed here forms an extensive bibliography. 

The botanist also will be interested in the wealth of animal life 
that may be observed. Freedom from molestation has made the mam- 
mals and birds tame, and it is possible to see many kinds that else- 
where are timid and seldom visible. Flocks of chattering parrots and 
parrakeets fly all day long over the trees, and literally hundreds of 
other birds may be seen about the forest. Peccaries may be encoun- 
tered along any trail, and sitting in the evening on the steps of the 
laboratory, one may watch the monkeys going to their sleeping places. 
Deer are found in the forest, and jaguars have been seen from the 
laboratory. In the mud the tracks of tapirs, the largest Central Ameri- 
can mammal, are found now and then, and one is likely to meet upon 
the trail other smaller but interesting animals. Insects are not more 
plentiful than elsewhere, and I do not remember to have been troubled 
by anything more disagreeable than ants, the worst pests of tropical 
forests. Snakes exist here, some of them venomous, but they need 
occasion only a fair amount of caution. I happened to see none upon 
the island. 

This list is little more than an enumeration of the names of the 
sjjecies of plants now known to occur on Barro Colorado Island. 1 
hope that at some time it may be practicable to prepare a descri]:)tive 
flora of the island, but it is better to leave such a work until the list is 
more nearly complete. In the near future there will be published, as 
volume 27 of the Contributions from the National Herbarium, an 
account of the plants of the Canal Zone, with keys for their deter- 
mination, and it is felt that to publish here keys to the species would 
be an unnecessary repetition. 

Besides my own collections, I have had access to a few others made 
on the island : those of Dr. William R. Maxon, who collected here 
June 6, 1923 ; of Prof. F. L. Stevens, of the University of Illinois, 
who visited the island in September, 1924 ; and of Prof. C. W. Dodge, 



NO. 8 FLORA OF BARRO fOr.ORAnO ISLAND STANDLRY 5 

of Harvard University, who was enq-a^ed in study of the fungi during 
the summer of 1925, and has furnished a list of the flowering plants 
he collected at that time. Among the other botanists who have visited 
the island are Dr. A. S. Hitchcock and Mr. O. F. Cook, of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, and Prof. G. R. liisby, of Manitoba 
Agricultural College. 

In addition to the species listed there are still on hand some sterile 
specimens which it has been impossible to identify. Most of these 
represent additions to the flora of Panama and probably to that of 
North America. Some of them doubtless will prove of great inter- 
est, but their recognition must await the collection of more complete 
material or a fortunate association with named specimens from other 
regions. 

The Spanish vernacular names given for the species here listed 
are those used in Panama, and many of them were verified upon the 
island. Well established English names have been cited when available. 

In the present paper there are li.sted for Barro Colorado Island 
61 1 species of plants. Of these at least 3S species are introduced. 



FUNGI 

The list of fungi is based partly upon specimens collected by myself and 
identified by Dr. J. R. Weir of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. There 
are included also numerous records supplied by Prof. F. L. Stevens and Prof. 
G. R. Bisby. 

Arcyria cinerea Pers. 

Auricularia mesenterica Bull. This, like most of the fleshy and woody fungi 
growing upon logs and tree trunks, is called in Panama as well as elsewhere 
in Central America "orejas" or "orejitas." 

Bagnisiopsis peiibebuyensis (Speg.) Theiss. & Syd. On Miroiiia arijcntca. 

Camillea cyclops Mont. 

Camillea Sagraeana (Mont.) B. & C. 

Cookeina sulcipes (Berk.) Kuntze. 

Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) Kuntze. 

Fomes Auberianus Mont. 

Fomes ferreus Berk. 

Fomes marmoratus Berk. 

Ganoderma sp. 

Geaster sp. 

Gloeoporus conchoides Mont. 

Hexagonia tenuis (Hook.) Vw 

Hexagonia variegata Berk. 

Hirneola delicata (Fr.) Bres. 

Hirneola polytricha Mont. 

Hymenochaete damaecornis Link & Lev. 

Irenina Shropshiriana Stevens, sp. nov. On Miconia argentca. 

Laschia auriscalpium Mont. 

Laschia pezizoidea Berk. 

Lentinus strigellus Berk. 

Lentinus velutirius Fr. 

Meliola Heliconiae Stevens, sp. nov. On Ilclicouia sp. 

Meliola Musae (Kunze) Mont. On HcUconia sp. 

Meliola palmicola Winter. 

Meliola Panici Earle. On Olyra latifolia. 

Meliola peruviana irregulaiis Stevens, var. nov. On Bignoniaceae indet. 

Meliola Pilocarpi Stevens. On Zantho.xylum ( ?) 

Polyporus brachypus Lev. 

Polyporus gracilis Kl. 

Polyporus infernalis Berk. 

Polyporus licnoides Mont. 

Polyporus lignosus Kl. 

Polyporus subelegans Murr. 

Polyporus virgatus B. & C. 

Polystictus arenicOlor Berk. 

Polystictus crocatus Fr. 

Polystictus occidentalis (Kl.) Fr. 

Polystictus sanguineus (L.) Fr. 

6 



XO. 8 FI.dRA OF I'.ARRO C(M.( IKADO ISLAND STANDLF.V 'J 

Polystictus Steinheilianus Berk. & Lev. " Really a thin form of Travietes 
rigidci Berk. & I\Iont." 

Polystictus versatilis Berk. 

Polystictus versicolor (Dicks.) J-V. 

Poria vincta (I'crk.) Cko. 

Schizophyllum commune (L.) Fr. 

Stereum flabellatum Pat. 

Stereum glabrescens Berk. ? 

Stereum papyrinum Mont. 

Thelephora pusiola Pat. ? 

Trametes caperatus Berk. 

Trametes cubensis Mont. 

Trametes hydnoides (Sw.) Fr. 

Trametes rigida Berk. & Mont. 

Xylaria axifera Mont. 

Xylaria cubensis Mont. 

The records of the following rusts have been supplied by Prof. H. S. Jackson, 
of Purdue University. The specimens were collected by Prof. F. L. Stevens. 

Puccinia Emiliae P. Henn. On Nciirolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. 

Uredo Dioscoreae P. Henn. On Dioscorea tirophylla Hemsl. 

LICHENS 

Tlie following species has been determined by Mr. G. K. Merrill. The nuni- 
ber of lichens occurring on Barro Colorado is not large, but there are other 
species besides the one listed. 

Leptogium azureum (Swartz) Mont. 

MOSSES 

The following mosses have been determined by Mr. Edwin B. Bartram : 

Bryum coronatum Schwaegr. 

Crossomitrium Wallisi C. M. 

Lepodipilum polytrichioides (Hedw.) Brid. 

Neckeropsis disticha (Hedw.) Fleiscli. 

Octoblepharum albidum (L.) Hedw. 

Pilotrichum ramosissimum IMitt. 

Taxithelium planum (Brid.) Mitt. 

Thuidium schistocalyx (C. M.) Mitt. 

SCHIZAEACEAE. Curlygrass Family' 

Lygodium polymorphum (Cav.) H. B. K. A slender vine, very hairy, in 
cut-over places. 

Lygodium radiatum Prantl. 

CYATHEACEAE. Tree Fern Family 

Hemit«lia petiolata Hook. Frequent ; a very handsome plant, the only 
tree fern known to occur on the island. 

'An annotated list of the ferns and fern allies of Barro Colorado has 
been published recently by the writer in the American Fern Journal 16: 112-120; 
17: 1-8. 1927. The identifications are l)y Dr. William R. Maxon. 



8 SMIIHSONIAN MTSCELLANFXJUS COLLKCTIONS VOL. /O 

MARATTIACEAE. Marattia Family 
Danaea nodosa (L.) J. E. Sm. Frequent in the forest. 

POLYPODIACEAE. Polypody Family 

Acrostichum sp. A species of this genus grows in shallow "water about the 
edge of the lake, but specimens have not been collected. It is either A. auretim 
L.or A. daneaefoliiim Langsd. & Fisch., both of which are common in the region. 

Adiantum lucidum Swartz. Common in the forest. 

Adiantum philippense L. Infrequent. 

Adiantum sp. (Stajuilcy 31330). An unidentified and perhaps undescribed 
species. 

Ananthacorus angustifolius (Swartz) Underw. & Maxon. An epiphytic plant. 

Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg. Epiphytic, 

Asplenium serratum L. Epiphytic. The American birds-nest fern. 

Cyclopeltis semicordata (Swartz) J. Sm. Abundant. 

Dictyoxiphium panamense Hook. 

Diplazium delitescens Maxon. Abundant. 

Diplazium grandifoaum Swartz. 

Dryopteris dentata (Forsk.) C. Chr. 

Dryopteris Poiteana (Bory) Urban. Frequent in the forest. 

Elaphoglossum Herminieri (Bory & Fee) Moore. Epiphytic. 

Eschatogramme furcata (L.) Trev. Epiphytic. 

Leptochilus cladorrhizans (Spreng.) Maxon. Common. 

Nephrolepis pendula (Raddi) J. Sm. Epiphytic. 

Pityrogramma calomelaena (L.) Link. In open places. 

Polybotrya caudata Kunze. A creeping and climbing epiphyte. 

Polybotrya osmundacea Humb. & Bonpl. A large clim1)ing epiphyte. 

Polypodium ciliatum Willd. Epiphytic. 

Polypodium crassifoUum L. A coarse epiphyte. 

Polypodium occultum Christ. Epiphytic. 

Polypodium pectinatum L., form. An epiphyte. 

Polypodium percussum Cav. Epiphytic. 

Saccoloma elegans Kaulf. A common handsome terrestrial plant. 

Stenochlaena vestita (Fourn.) Underw. A large creeping epiphyte. 

Tectaria euryloba (Christ) Maxon. 

Tectaria martinicensis (Spreng.) Copel. Common in the forest. 

Vittaria lineata (L.) J. E. Smi. A common epiphyte, with grasslike leaves. 

HYMENOPHYLLACEAE. Filmy-fern Family 

Trichomanes Godmani Hook. Epiphytic, like tlie other local species of the 
genus. 

Trichomanes Krausii Hook. & Grev. 
Trichomanes sphenoides Kunze. 

SALVINIACEAE. Salvinia Family 
Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Floating in quiet water. 



NO. 8 FLORA OF liARRO COLORADO ISLAND STANDLIA C) 

LYCOPODIACEAE. Clubmoss Family 
Lycopodium ceriiuum L. Reported by Prof. C. W. Dodge. 

SELAGINELLACEAE. Selaginella Family 

Selaginella conduplicata Sprcns. Common in the forest. 
Selaginella Fendleri I'akcr. 

Selaginella haematodes (Kuiuc) Spring. Common; easily recognized by its 
dark red stems. 

Selaginella Schrammii Hicron. 
Selaginella sylvatica Baker. 

TYPHACEAE. Cattail Family 
Typha angustifolia L. Cattail. In shallow water at the edge of the lake. 

POACEAE. Grass Family 

The identifications in this family have liecn made by Dr. A. S. Hitchcock and 
Mrs. Agnes Chase. 

Andropogon condensatus H. B. K. In clearing; scarce. 

Arthrostylidium racemiflonim Steud. A common slender bamboo. 

Axonopus compressus (Swartz) Beauv. Carpet grass. Common. 

Cenchrus viridis Spreng. Sandbur. In open places. 

Chloris radiata (L.) Swartz. In clearings; rare. 

Chusquea simpliciflora Munro. A slender bamboo, common in the forest. 

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda grass. In open places; introduced. 

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Cr.\bgrass. 

Eleusine indica (L.) Gacrtn. In open places. 

Gynerium sagittatum (Aul)l.) Beauv. Cane. A tall coarse grass, in wet 
places. 

Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees. In shallow water. 

Ichnanthus nemorosus Doell. Common. 

Ichnanthus pallens (Swartz) Munro. Common. 

Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. In clearings. 

Lasiacis sorghoidea (Desv.) Hitchc. & Chase. A common coarse vine. 

Olyra latifolia L. Common in forest. 

Oplismenus Burmanni (Retz.) Beauv. Very common. 

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. Common. 

Orthoclada laxa (Rich.) Beauv. In forest. 

Oryza sativa L. Rice. Arroz. Upland rice has been planted on the island. 

Panicum pilosum Swartz. In clearing. 

Panicum trichoides Swartz. Common. 

Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Common. 

Paspalum paniculatum L. In clearing. 

Pharus glaber IT. B. K. Frequent in forest. 

Pharus latifolius L. Frequent. 

Polytrias amaurea (Biise) Kuntze. Well establislicd in the lawn at the 
laboratory. 



lO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

Saccharum officinarum L. Sugar cane. Cana. Planted at the laboratory, 
and about the old clearings. 

Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. Common in open places. 
Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. In a clearing; rare. 
Streptochaeta Sodiroana Hack. In the forest. 
Streptogyne crinita Beauv. In the forest ; occasional. 
Zea mays L. Maize. Maiz. Planted at the laboratory. 

CYPERACEAE. Sedge Family 

Cyperus caracasanus Kimth. Junco. In open places. 

Cyperus ferax Rich. Junco. Occasional in clearings. 

Cyperus giganteus \'ahl. A giant plant in water at the edge of the lake; 
in habit resembling the African papyrus. 

Dichromena radicans Schlecht. & Cham. Clavo. In open places. 

Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl. In clearings. 

Fuirena umbellata Rottb. In shallow water at the edge of the lake. 

Kyllinga pumila Michx. In open places. 

Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz) Britton. Sawgrass. Common in shallow 
water at the edge of the lake. 

Rynchospora cephalotes (L.) Vahl. Paja macho de monte (" tapir grass "). 
In open places. 

Scleria bracteata Cav. Cortadera, Cuchillito. The Spanish name alludes 
to the fact that the sharp edges of the leaves cut the skin like a knife. 

Scleria melaleuca Schlecht. & Cham. 

PHOENICACEAE. Palm Family 

Other palms than those listed probably occur here. 

Acanthorrhiza Warscewiczii Wendl. Noli, Palma de escoba. Scarce. The 
only fan palm of the region. The leaves are used for brooms and for thatching. 

Asterogyne sp. (Gconoma nincata Wendl.?) Rabo ahorcado. A nearly stem- 
less, small plant, the mostly simple leaves deeply lobed at the apex ; flowers 
in simple spikes. 

Astrocaryum polystachyum Wendl. A tall plant with spiny trunk. 

Bactris sp. (Subgenus Trichobactris.) A slender, very spiny palm, in forest; 
common. 

Calyptrogyne sp. A small plant, stemless or with a short trunk ; leaves 
with numerous narrow segments ; flowers in simple spikes. 

Chamaedorea Wendlandiana (Oerst.) Hemsl. Cana verde, Bola. A slender 
graceful palm with smooth green stems. 

Cocos nucifera L. Coconut. Coco. A few trees about the sites of former 
houses ; introduced. 

Geonoma sp. Probably two species grow here. Slender plants with pinnate 
leaves, unarmed stems, and branched inflorescences. 

Iriartea exorrhiza Mart. Stilt palm. Jira. A tall palm with slender smooth 
green trunk, the trunk supported by stout prop roots, which are covered with 
very short spines. 

Pyrenoglyphis major (Jacq.) Karst. Lata, Palma brava. A very spiny 
plant, similar to Bactris, but with much larger fruits. 

Synechanthus Warscewiczianus Wendl. Palmilla, Bola. A slender palm, 
similar in appearance to CJwmacdorca. 



NO. 8 FLORA OF P.ARRO COLORADO ISLAND STANDLFY II 

CYCLANTHACEAE. Cyclanthus Family 

Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pav. Panama hat palm. Portokrico, Jipijapa, 
Rampira, Iraca. a stemless plant witli nuincrous long-stalked leaves, the blades 
cleft so as to rescnil)le a Maltese cross. It is from the young leaves of this 
plant that the famous " Panama " hats are made, in Ecuador. 

Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. Portorrico. A stemless plant, the leaves cleft 
into two hroad divisions. Easily recognized by the fruit, which resembles a 
large screw. 

ARACEAE. Arum Family 

Plants of this family are particularly almndant on Rarro Colorado. The 
epiphytic species constitute a large part of the vegetation seen upon tree trunks. 

Anopsias Moritzianus Schott. 

Anthurium aemulum Schott. A large epiphytic vine with parted leaves. 

Anthurium Friedrichsthalii Schott. A small acaulescent epiphyte with linear 
leaves. 

Anthurium Holtonianum Schott. A very showy species, a large vine with 
huge leaves, digitately parted into several broad segments. 

Anthurium maximum (Desf.) Engler. An acaulescent epiphyte, with large 
broad simple leaves. 

Anthurium Schlechtendalii Kunth. An acaulescent epiphyte. 

Anthurium scolopendrinum (Ham.) Kunth. Acaulescent, with narrow entire 
leaves. 

Anthurium triangulum Engler. Leaves sagittate. 

Dieffenbachia Oerstedii Schott. 0x6 de lagarto. Called " dumb-cane " 
by the West Indians. A coarse terrestrial herb with erect stems and broad 
leaves. The crushed plant has a skunklike odor. The juice is very irritant 
in contact with the skin, and care must be exercised, in handling the plant. 

Monstera dilacerata Koch. A large and handsome epiphytic vine with 
deeply pinnatifid, broad leaves. 

Monstera pertusa (L.) de Vriese. A coarse vine, recognized at once by the 
broad leaves perforated with mnnerous large holes. 

Philodendron coerulescens Engler. Epiphytic vine with ovate entire leaves. 

Philodendron grandipes Krause. An acaulescent terrestrial plant with rounded- 
cordate leaves ; very common. 

Philodendron Karstenianum Schott. An epiphyte with oblong leaves. 

Philodendron radiatum Schott. Azota cabeza, Chalde. A large handsome 
vine, tlie leaves deeply pinnatifid into narrow segments ; very common. 

Philodendron rigidifolium Krause. Cinchadora. Epiphyte with broad ovate 
leaves. 

Philodendron tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott. A common vine, recognized readily 
by the leaves, which are parted into 3 oblong entire segments. 

Philodendron Wendlandii Schott. Epiphytic vine with oblong leaves, cordate 
at base. 

Pistia stratiotes L. Water-lettuce. Floating in quiet water. Very unlike 
the other members of the family, the plant consisting of a rosette of spongy, 
broadly wedge-shaped, pale green leaves. 

Spathiphyllum Patini (Hogg) N. E. Brown. Acaulescent terrestrial plant. 

Stenospermation sessile Engler. Large epiphytic vine with lance-oblong leaves. 



12 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 78 



Xanthosoma helleborifolium (Jacq.) Schott. Papayuelo. Terrestrial plant 
with a single leaf, this parted into 5 to 13 lobed segments ; petiole handsomely 
blotched with brown. 

Xanthosoma violaceum Schott. Oto. Called " I)adu "' and " coco " by the 
West Indians. Planted at the laboratory; cultivated commonly in the lowlands 
of tropical America for its tuberous roots, which are cooked and eaten much 
like potatoes. The plant resemibles the caladium or elephant-ear cultivated for 
ornament. 

LEMNACEAE. Duckweed Family 

Lemna cyclostasa (I'.ll.) Cliev. Uickwef.d. Mr. Zctck re])orts that he lias seen 
a plant of this family in quiet water about the island. The species listed is 
the only member of the family known at present from the Canal Zone, but it 
is possible that others occur here. 

BROMELIACEAE. Pineapple Family 

Ananas magdalenae (Andre) Standi. Pita, Pinuela. Called " pingwing " 
by the West Indians. Common in forests. Similar in habit to the pineapple, 
the red flowers forming a large hard globose head: The long, very spiny 
leaves furnish one of the best fibers known, the " pita iloja." The plants often 
form dense thickets which are almost impenetrable. 

Ananas sativus Schnlt. Pineapple. Pin a. Planted at the laboratory. 

Billbergia pallidiflora Liebm. An epiphyte with pendent flower spikes, the 
few long leaves spiny-margined and handsomely blotched with silver. 

Catopsis tenella Mez. A small epiphyte with dioecious flowers and broad, 
thin, l)right green leaves. 

Guzmania minor Mez. An epiphyte withi broad, bright green, thin leaves, the 
inflorescence short and dense, with showy, red or purple bracts. 

Tillandsia bulbosa Hook. An epiphyte with a hard, dark, bulblike base. 

Tillandsia digitata Mez. An epiphyte with a cluster of many gray leaves. 

COMMELINACEAE. Dayflower Family 

Campelia zanonia (L.) H. ]>. K. An erect herb about a meter high, with 
conspicuous, dark blue, juicy fruit. 

Commelina elegans H. B. K. Dayflower. Codillo. A fleshy procumbent 
herb with bright blue flowers, resembling the Wandering Jew of gardens. 

Dichorisandra hexandra (Aubl.) Standi. An erect branched herb, about a 
meter high, with small blue flowers. 

Tradescantia geniculata Jacq. An inconspicuous, procumbent, very hairy 
herb with small white flowers. 

PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerelweed Family 

Piaropus azurea (Swartz) Raf. Water-hyacinth. I have no record of having 
seen this plant on Barro Colorado, Init it certainly must occur somewhere 
about the shores, since it is frequent in Gatun Lake. If left to itself it would 
overgrow the lake, Init efforts have been made to exterminate the plant, hence 
it is not abundant anywhere. 



NO. 8 jn.ORA 0\- llARRO Cni.f )R.\1H) ISLAND STANDLr':Y I3 

LILIACEAE. Lily Family 

Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merrill, riantcd at the laboratory. One of the so- 
called Dracaenas ; much planted for ornament in Panama. A tall plant with 
green or more commonly red or purple leaves. 

SMILACACEAE. Sarsaparilla Family 

Smilax mollis W'illd. A common small vyie with ])ul)escent foliage. 
Smilax panamensis Morong. GkEKNiikiKU. Zau/.a. A common large vine 
w ilh very prickly stems and glabrous foliage. 

HAEMODORACEAE. Bloodwort Family 

Xiphidium caeruleum Aubl. P.xlmita. Common in the forest. An herb, 
marked by its fleshy, vertically 2'-ranked leaves, suggesting those of an iris ; 
flowers small and whitish, the fruit a small red berry. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family 

Hymenocallis americana (L.) Salisb. Spidicrlilv. Called " euchar lily" by 
the West Indians. I found it in the forest on one of the hills of the island, 
at the site of a former dwelling. It is normally a seashore plant, but is often 
grown for ornament because of its handsome white flowers. 

DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family 

Dioscorea alata L. Yam. Name. The common yam, planted at the laboratory. 
Dioscorea urophylla Uline. Bejuco de .saina. A native species, growing in the 
forest. 

IRIDACEAE. Iris Family 

Marica gracilis Herb. An inconspicuous herl) with narrow leaves, occasional 
in the wet forest. 

MUSACEAE. Banana Family 

Heliconia acuminata Ricli. A small herbaceous plant with small leaves; 
inflorescence erect, with deep red !)racts. The Heliconias are known in Panama 
as " platanillo," or sometimes as " lengua de vaca." They are conspicuous plants 
in the forests and in swamps. The bracts hold water in which mosquitoes 
sometimes breed. 

Heliconia latispatha I!enth. Platanillo, Guacamaya. Similar to the last 
species, but much larger ; inflorescence erect, the bracts red, tinged with yellow 
or orange. 

Heliconia Mariae Hook. Beefsteak Heliconia. Platanillo. Called by the 
West Indians " wild plantain " or " wild banana." The largest and most showy 
species of the region, often forming dense thickets, the plants several meters 
high, with leaves as large as those of the banana. Inflorescence very large, 
thick, and heavy, pendent, with broad, closely crowded, red bracts. 

Heliconia pendula Wawra. A medium-sized plant with tomentose, pendent, 
dark red inflorescence. 



14 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS , VOL. 78 

Musa paradisiaca L. Plantain. Platano. Planted at the laboratory and 
elsewhere. 

Musa sapientum L. Banana. Planted at the laboratory and about the old 
clearings. 

ZINGIBERACEAE. Ginger Family 

Costus sanguineus Donn. Smith. The species of Cosfiis are common in the 
forests. They are tall plants with simple leafy stems, the stems formed by 
the tightly rolled leaf petioles. In this species the flower spikes are fusiform, 
with closely appressed, unappendaged, red bracts. 

Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Swartz. Spikes cylindric or subglobose, the bracts 
not appendaged, in age loose and spreading. 

Costus villosissimus Jacq. Canagria, Cana de micO'. Plant very villous; 
bracts with leafy, green or red appendages. 

Dimerocostus uniflorus (Poepp.) Schum. A tall plant, usually 3 to 4 meters 
high, resembling the Costus species ; usually growing in water. Flowers white, 
7 to 8 cm. long, opening one at a time on each plant. 

Renealmia occidentalis (Swartz) Sweet. Stems leafy, in clumps, i to 2.5 
meters high ; inflorescences short, arising from the ground at tlie base of the 
plant; berries red or dark blue, with orange pulp. 

Renealmia strobilifera Poepp. & Endl. Stems leafy, 1.5 to 3 meters high ; 
inflorescence conelike, bright orange. 

MARANTACEAE. Arrowroot Family 

Calathea insignis Peters. The Calatheas, common in wet forest and swampy 
places, are coarse herbs with broad leaves like those of cannas, the flowers in 
dense spikes. In this species the spikes are strongly compressed, the bracts 
thin and parchment-like. 

Calathea lutea (Aubl.) Meyer. Hoja blanca. Leaves whitish beneath; 
bracts distichous but not strongl}- compressed, thick and leathery. 

Calathea macrosepala Schum. Bij.ao. Spikes small and headlike, very dense, 
not compressed. 

Ischnosiphon leucophaeus (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Leaves white beneath; 
Flowers in very slender, terete spikes. 

Myrosma panamesis Standi. A stemless plant with broad leaves about a 
foot long, the flowers in simple spikes. 

Pleiostachya pruinosa (Regel) Schum. Easily recognized by the broad 
leaves, which are dark red or purple beneath. Common in forest. 

BURMANNIACEAE. Burmannia Family 

Ophiomeris panamensis Standi. Known only from Barro Colorado, where it 
was collected by Prof. C. W. Dodge. A small delicate whitish saprophyte, the 
slender stem bearing a single lopsided flower, three of whose lobes end in long 
filiform appendages. 

ORCHIDACEAE. Orchid Family 

The identifications have been made chiefly by Mr. Oakes Ames. 
Aspasia principissa Reichenb. f. Epiphytic. 



NO. 8 FLORA OF P.ARRn COLORADO ISLAND STANDLLY I 5 

Bulbophyllum pachyrrachis (A. Rich.) Griseb. An epiphytic orchid witli 
very small tlowcrs in pendent spikes which have a thick fleshy rachis. 

Catasetum viridiflavum Hook. A showy epiphytic species, the green and 
yellow ilowcrs resembling those of the northern lady's-slippcrs. 

Epidendrum anceps Jacq. Epiphytic. 

Epidendrum difforme Jacq. Epiphytic. 

Epidendrum Rousseauae Schlechter. Epiphytic. 

Epidendrum stenopetalum Hook. An epiphyte. 

Maxillaria Macleei Batem. Epiphytic. 

Oncidium ampliatum Lindl. Butterfly orchid. A handsome plant with large, 
yellow and brown flowers which suggest butterflies. 

Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. Epiphytic ; easily recognized by its equitant 
leaves, suggesting those of iris. Flowers very small, resembling in form a 
bird's head, hence the generic name. 

Peristeria elata Hook. Dove orchid or Holy Qhost flower. Espiritu 
Santo. A tall terrestrial species, famed for its handsome white flowers, whose 
central organs suggest by their form a dove with outspread wings. 

Pleurothallis Brighamii Wats. Epiphytic. 

Pleurothallis marginata Lindl. Both these species are very small plants with 
inconspicuous flowers. 

Sobralia panamensis Schlecliter. A terrestrial plant with tall leafy stems and 
handsome large purple flowers, which last only part of a single day, closing 
about noon. 

Vanilla pompona Schiede. Vanilla. Vainilla. A large vine, common 
nearly everywhere in this part of Panama. 

PIPERACEAE. Pepper Family 

Peperomia caudulilimba longependula C. DC. All the species of Pepcroinia 
occurring on the island are small succulent epiphytic herbs. 

Peperomia conjungens Trel. Type from Barro Colorado. 

Peperomia gatunensis C. DC. 

Peperomia rotundifolia (L.) H. B. K. Poleo. Leaves rounded, very thick and 
lens-like. 

Piper acutissimum Trel. Cordoncillo. All the species of Piper growing 
here are terrestrial shrubs. They are abundant in wet forest, and often grow 
in open places. The names given to the species are " cordoncillo," " gusanillo," 
and "hinojo." The West Indians use the name " cowfoot." 

Piper auritum H. B. K. Santa Maria de anis. A large coarse suffrutescent 
plant, easily recognized by its very broad, deeply cordate leaves, and by the 
characteristic odor of the crushed leaves, suggestive of sarsaparilla. 

Piper cordulatum C. DC. 

Piper culebranum C. DC. 

Piper imperiale (Miquel) C. DC. A plant with very large leaves, the 
petioles with numerous fleshy wartlike protuberances. 

Piper laxispicum Trel. Type from Barro Colorado. 

Piper paulownifolium C. DC. 

Piper pseudo-cativalense Trel. 

Piper pseudo-garagaranum Trel. Type from Barro Colorado. 

Piper pseudo-variabile Trel. 



l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

Piper pubistipulum estylosum Trel. Type from Barro Colorado. 
Piper san-joseanum C. DC. Hinojo. 
Piper smilacifolium C. DC. 
Piper subnudispicum Trel. 

Piper viridicaule Trel. Type from Barro Colorado. 

Pothomorphe peltata (L.) Miq. Santa Maria. A stiff nitescent plant with 
rounded-cordate leaves, the spikes in umhels. 

ULMACEAE. Elm Family 

Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) .Sarg. Shrub or small tree, the branches usually 
pendent or clambering, armed with recurved spines. 

Trema micrantha (L.) IMumc. Small tree with narrow gray leaves and 
very small, red fruits. 

MORACEAE. Mulberry Family 

Artocarpus communis Forst. Breadfruit. Arbol de pan, Fruta de pan. 
Planted at the laboratory. 

Castilla panamensis Cook. Rubber tree. Caucho, Hule, Ule. A common 
forest tree, the only species of the immediate region. 

Cecropia sp. Guarumo. Three species of Cecropia are known from the 
Canal Zone, and all may occur on Barro Colorado. No specimens suitable for 
identification have been ' collected on the island. The species are small trees 
with prop-roots, and very large, deeply palmate-lobed leaves which are white- 
tomentose beneath. The hollow liranches are inhabited by ants. 

Coussapoa panamensis Pittier. A tree, usually epiphytic, at least at first, 
with large ovate leaves white-tomentose beneath. 

Ficus costaricensis (Liebm.) Miquel.? Sterile specimens only, and the 
determination therefore somewhat doubtful. In Panama the wild figs are 
usually called " matapalo," " higo," or " higuero." They are large trees, often 
strangling or epiphytic, and frequently with large buttresses. 

Ficus crassiuscula Warb. 

Ficus glabrata 11. B..K. Migueron. A common tree, with very large fruits. 

Ficus Hemsleyana Standi. 

Ficus Tonduzii Standi. Common ; leaves very broad, with few coarse nerves. 

Helicostylis latifolia Pittier. Berba, Ciioyb.x, Querendo. Large tree with 
oblong to obovate, entire leaves. 

Inophloeum armatum (Miquel) Pittier. Namagua, Maragua, Cocua. Large 
tree with narrow rough leaves. From the bark of this tree the Panama Indians 
formerly made a coarse cloth which they used for hammocks, blankets, 
women's clothes, and sails for boats. The cloth is still made in some parts of 
the country. 

Olmedia aspera Ruiz & Pav. Shrub or small tree with oblong long-cuspidate 
rough leaves. Common. 

Sorocea afifinis Hemsl. Shrub or small tree, with small red fruits in racemes. 

Trophis racemosa (L.) Urban. Tree of medium or large size. 

URTICACEAE. Nettle Family 

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Swartz. .\n Iierb in water about the edge of 
the lake. 



XO. 8 FI-ORA OF r.ARRn COI.nRAlM) ISI.ANIO STANDLKY 1 7 

Myriocarpa yzabalensis (Ddiin. Smith) Killip. LarRc slirul), the minute 
wliitisli tlowcrs in numerous pendent, very slender spikes sometimes 60 cm. long. 

Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud. Ortiga. Shrub or small tree, armed with spine- 
like hairs that sting the flesh painfully. 

Urera data (Swartz) Griseb. A tree 6 to 9 meters high, in this regior. 
known only from l?arro Colorado. 

PROTEACEAE. Protea Family 

Roupala darienensis Pitticr. Small tree with a skunklike odor;, leaves 
partly pinnate and partly simple. 

OLACACEAE. Olax Family 

Heisteria costaricensis Donn. Smith. The species of Hcisteria are shrubs with 
alternate entire leaves, and are easily recognized by the saucer-shaped calyx 
which persists with the fruit and is colored bright red. 

Heisteria macrophylla Oerst. Ajicillo. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Birthwort Family 

Aristolochia sylvicola Standi. Small slender woody vine. 

POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family 

Coccoloba actiminata H. B. K. Shrub. 

Coccoloba leptostachya Benth. Small tree. 

Coccoloba nematostachya (Griseb.) Lindau. Hueso. Small tree. 

Triplaris americana L. Guayabo hormiguero, Palo santo. Large tree with 
dense racemes of purple-red flowers. The flowers appear about the first of 
February and are very showy, lasting for several weeks. The hollow branches 
are infested wnth savage ants, usually a species of Pscitdnmyrma. 

AMARANTHACEAE. Amaranth Family 

Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) R. Br. A small weedy herb. 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. 

Celosia argentea L. Rare ; a few plants found, probably escaped from culti- 
vation. The cristate form of this species, C. cristafa L., is the cultivated cocks- 
comb (" abanico "). 

Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume. Cadillo. Small herb, introduced from the 

Old W^jrld. 

Iresine celosia L. A common herbaceous weed. 

NYCTAGINACEAE. Four-o'clock Family 

Neea Pittieri Standi. Shrub or small tree. 

Pisonia aculeata L. Large shrub or small tree, with long, often clambering 
branches, armed with hooked spines; fruit small, club-shaped, covered on the 
angles with small sticky glands. 



l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

PHYTOLACCACEAE. Pokeberry Family 

Petiveria alliacea L. Anamu. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, the crushed 
leaves with the odor of garlic; flowers appressed to the rachis of the spike; 
fruit bearing 4 small hooked bristles. 

PORTULACACEAE. Purslane Family 
Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane. Verdolaga. A rare weed. 

NYMPHAEACEAE. Waterlily Family 

Castalia ampla Salisb. Waterlily. Called " duckweed " by the West Indians. 
In quiet water. A plant with handsome white flowers. 

MENISPERMACEAE. Moonseed Family 

Cissampelos pareira L. A slender vine with rounded hairy leaves, common 
almost throughout Central America. 

Cissampelos tropaeolifolia DC. 

Hyperbaena panamensis Standi. Woody vine with ovate to oblong, 3-nerved 
leaves. 

Sciadotenia sp. A woody vine, perhaps of this genus, grows on the island, 
but only sterile specimens have been collected, hence its identification is un- 
certain. The broad leaves are closely white-tomentose beneath. 

ANNONACEAE. Custard-apple Family 

Annona acuminata Safford. Camaron. Shrub or small tree, the leaves 
glabrous or nearly so, narrow ; fruit small, tuberculate, opening at maturity. 

Annona Hayesii Safford. Shrub or small tree ; fruit smooth, subglobose, 
about 5 cm. long. 

Annona Spraguei Safford. Chirimoya, Negrito. Tree; leaves densely pubes- 
cent beneath ; fruit small, covered with clawlike tubercles. 

Desmopsis panamensis (Robinson) Safford. Shrub or small tree; fruit a 
cluster of stalked pubescent berries. 

Guatteria amplifolia Triana & Planch. Shrub or small tree with large 
oblong leaves ; fruit a cluster of small oval berries. 

Xylopia macrantha Triana & Planch. CorobA, Rayado. Small tree. 

MYRISTICACEAE. Nutmeg Family 

Virola panamensis (Hemsl.) Warb. Bogamani, Malagueta de Montana. 
Large tree with entire oblong leaves, stellate-tomentose beneath. Common. 

MONIMIACEAE. Monimia Family 

Siparuna pauciflora (Beurl.) A. DC. Large shrul), strong-scented, with 
broad pubescent leaves. 



NO. 8 FI.ORA OF n.\RRO COLOR ADO ISLAND— STANDLF.Y IQ 

LAURACEAE. Laurel Family 

Ocotea cernua (Nees) Mez. Sigua. A frequent tree. 

Persea americana Mill. Avocado, Alligator peau. Aguacate. Planted at 
the laboratory. 

CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family 
Capparis baducca L. Shrub. 

ROSACEAE. Rose Family 
Rosa sp. One of the common roses, planted at the laboratory. 

AMYGDALACEAE. Almond Family 
Licania hypoleuca Renth. Tree; leaves small, entire, white-tomentose beneath. 

CONNARACEAE. Connarus Family 

Cnestidium rufescens Plancli. Large woody vine with pinnate leaves ; leaflets 
densely pubescent beneath. 

Connarus panamensis Griseb. Woody vine ; leaflets 3, glabrous or nearly so. 
Rourea glabra II. B. K. Large woody vine; leaflets glabrate. 

MIMOSACEAE. Mimosa Family 

Acacia Hayesii Benth. ? Una de gato. 

Acacia melanoceras Beurl., one of the ant-inhabited bullhorn acacias, may 
occur here, but the writer has not seen it on the island. 

Entada scandens (L.) Benth. Javilla. Large woody vine with enormous 
pods several inches broad. 

Inga edulis Mart. Guavo. Like the other species, a good-sized tree. 

Inga Goldmanii Pittier. Guavo de mono 

Inga marginata Willd. 

Inga panamensis Seem. Guavo. 

Mimosa pudica L. Sensitive-plant. Dormidera, Cierrate, Cierra tus puer- 
TAs. Called by the West Indians " shameweed " and " shame-face.'' Small herb 
with round heads of pink flowers. 

CAESALPINIACEAE. Senna Family 

Bauhinia excisa (Griseb.) Hemsl. Bejuco de mono. Large woody vine 
with bilobate leaves. The stems are compressed and ribbon-like, and perforated 
with large holes. 

Bauhinia sp. Only sterile material collected. Leaflets 2, very silky beneath, 
acute. 

Cassia bacillaris L. Shrub with showy yellow flowers. 

Peltogyne purpurea Pittier. Nazareno, Morado. A large tree, reported to 
exist here. 

Prioria copaifera Griseb. Cativo, Amans.^ mujer. A very common, large 
tree ; leaves with 4 leaflets. The short broad flat fruits are much sought by 
peccaries. 

Tounatea simplex (Swartz) Taub. Shrub or small tree. 



20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

FABACEAE. Bean Family 

Aeschynomene americana L. Pega-pega. Herb with buff flowers. 
Aeschynomene sensitiva Swartz. 

Andira inermis H. B. K. Cabbage-bark. Cocu. Large tree; leaflets 7 to 13, 
opposite, oblong, glabrous ; flowers purple, in panicles. The wood is of good 
quality and is nuich used locally. 

Cajanus bicolor DC. Pigeon-pea. Guandu, Frijol de palo. Shrub; much 
cultivated in this region for its edible seeds, and also naturalized. 

Clitoria arborescens Ait. An erect or scandent shrub ; one of the most beau- 
tiful plants of Central America, liearing clusters of shell-pink flowers about 
7 cm. long. 

Coumarouna panamensis Pittier. Almendro. Common. A large tree; leaves 
pinnate, the leaflets 5 to 8 pairs, large, o!)long, the costa close to the margin ; 
flowers pink, in panicles. The fresh fruit is filled with an oily fragrant liquid 
that crystallizes when dry. 

Dioclea reflexa Hook. ? Large woody vine. • 

Erythrina panamensis Standi. .Shrub or small tree with narrow, bright 
red flowers and red seeds. 

Machaerium marginatum Standi. 

Machaeiium microphyllum (Meyer) Standi. Spiny woody vine with purple 
flowers. 

Machaerium purpurascens Pittier. 

Machaerium Seemanni Benth. 

Meibomia adscendens (Swartz) Kuntze. A frequent weed. 

Meibomia axillaris (Swartz) Kuntze. The pods are sometimes called 
" guavitas." 

Meibomia cana (Gmel.) Blake. Pega-pega, Pegadera. Known among the 
Jamaicans as " strong-back," and used by them in domestic medicine. 

Meibomia purpurea (Mill.) Vail. 

Meibomia scorpiurus (Swartz) Kuntze. 

Mucuna urens (L.) DC. Chocho. Large vine: pods covered with stiff bristles 
that penetrate the skin easily. 

Phaseolus pedunculaiis H. B. K. Small herl)accous vine. 

Phaseolus vulgaris L. IIeax. Frijol. Planted at the laboratory. 

Platymiscium polystachyum Benth. QuiR.\. Large tree with racemes of small 
yellow flowers. The wood is of good quality, being known in commerce as 
Panama redwood. 

Platypodium Maxonianum Pittier. Cariiera. Large tree; fruit i-seeded, 
winged, samara-like. 

Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Large tree with small thin winged fruits. The 
sap turns red ujjon exposure to the air. 

Khynchosia pyramidalis (Lam.) Urban. A herbaceous vine with red and 
black seeds. 

ERYTHROXYLACEAE. Coca Family 

Erythroxylon amplum Benth. Shrul) with entire leaves. 
Erythroxylon panamense Turcz. 



NO. 8 FLORA Ol' r.AKKO (OI.OKADO ISLAND STANDLLV 21 

RUTACEAE. Rue Family 

Citrus auiantifolia (Cliristm.) Swindle. Limk. Limux. Naturalized in the 
forest. 
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbcck. Orange. Naranjo. Planted at the lal)oratory. 
Zanthoxylum panamense P. Wilson. Arcabu, Acabu, Alcauu. Large tree; 

trunk covered with larf;e pyramidal jirickles. 

SIMAROUBACEAE. Simaruba Family 

Quassia amara L. Qua,ssl\. Guavito amarco, Puksilde, Cruceta. Shrub 
or small tree with pinnate leaves and showy red ilowers. The leaves and bark 
arc as bitter as quinine. 

BURSERACEAE. Torchwood Family 

Protium asperum Standi. Carano. A large tree. From wounds in the trunk 
there are distilled large quantities of a fragrant resin or balsam, which collects 
upon the ground. Leaflets very rough. 

Protium sessiliflorum (Rose) Standi. Axime. Large tree ; common; leaflets 
smooth. 

Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) Kuntze? Large tree; common. 

MALPIGHIACEAE. Malpighia Family 

Hiraea faginifolia (DC.) Juss. Woody vine, the leaves densely silky beneath. 
Stigmaphyllon Humboldtianum Juss. Woody vine with yellow flowers. The 
broad leaves bear numerous stalked glands along the margins. 

TRIGONIACEAE. Trigonia Family 

Trigonia floribunda Oerst. Woody vine with entire leaves, densely wliite- 
tomentose beneath ; flowers small and white. 

POLYGALACEAE. Polygala Family 

Securidaca diversifolia (L.) Blake. Large woody vine with small entire 
leaves ; flowers pink, showy. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge Family 

Acalypha diversifolia Jacq. A common shrub. 

Acalypha macrostachya Jacq. Shrub. 

Acalypha villosa Jacq. Common shrub. 

Alchornea costaiicensis Pax & Hofi'm. Small tree with ovate crenate leaves ; 
slaminate flowers in long slender drooping spikes. 

Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume. A shrub with colored leaves; one of the 
tropical " crotons," planted at the laboratory. 

Croton Billbergianus Muell. Arg. Large shrub or small tree growing 
in the wet forest. 

Dalechampia panamensis Pax & HofTm. Vine witli 3-parted leaves ; inflores- 
cense subtended by 2 green bracts ; calyx furnished with stiiT hairs which 
penetrate the skin easily. 

Euphorbia hirta L. Hierba de tollo. Called " milkweed " by the West 
Indians. A small annual herb. 



22 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 



Euphorbia hypericifolia L. Hierba de pollo. A small glabrous annual. 

Hura crepitans L. Sandbox. Javillo. A giant forest tree, the trunk covered 
with small sharp spines. The milky sap causes blisters upon the skin. 

Hieronyma alchorneoides Allem. Pantano. Large tree with broad entire 
leaves bearing minute stellate scales. 

Mabea occidentalis Benth. Shrub or small tree with oblong leaves ; flowers in 
raceme-like terminal panicles. 

Manihot esculenta Crantz. Cass.'WA. Yuca. Much cultivated in Panama for 
its edible roots. Planted at the laboratory. 

Phyllanthus conami Swartz. Shrub or small tree with siuall distichous ovate 
leaves. 

Phyllanthus niruri L. Called by the West Indians "seed on the leaf." A 
small annual herb. 

Phyllanthus nobilis (L. f.) Muell. Arg. Shrub or small tree with oblong- 
elliptic leaves. 

ANACARDIACEAE. Cashew Family. 

Anacardium excelsum (Bert. & Balb.) Skeels. Espave. A common large 
tree with entire leaves. The bark is used in some parts of Panama as a 
fish poison. 

Astronium graveolens Jacq. Zorro. A common tree with pinnate leaves 
having serrate or entire leaflets. 

Mangifera indica L. Mango. Naturalized and planted. 

Spondias mombin L. Hogplum. Jobo. Tree with pinnate leaves and a 
juicy yellow edible fruit. 

HIPPOCRATEACEAE. Hippocratea Family 

Hippocratea volubilis L. Large woody vine, on the highest trees. The 
capsule is large, vertically compressed and nearly flat, and deeply 3-lobed. 

Salacia praecelsa (Miers) Griseb. Garrotillo. Large woody vine with 
globose fruit. 

SAPINDACEAE. Soapberry Family 

Allophylus psilospermus Radlk. Shrub or small tree with 3-foliolate leaves 
and winged fruit. 

Cupania cinerea Poepp. Gorgojo, Gorgojero. Shrub or small tree with 
pinnate leaves, whitish beneath. 

Cupania fulvida Triana & Planch. Caxdelillo, Gorgo.io, Gorgojero. Shrub 
or small tree, often simple, densely brown-hirsute. The leaves are pinnate, but 
on young plants they are simple. 

Cupania latifolia Kunth. Leaflets glabrous, rounded or retuse at apex. 

Cupania Seemanni Triana & Planch. Leaflets glabrous, acuminate. 

Paullinia alata Don. All the species of raiillinia are woody vines. They 
are used in tropical America as fish poisons. 

Paullinia bracteosa Radlk. 

Paullinia glomerulosa Radlk. 

Paullinia turbacensis H. B. K. 

Serjania trachygona Radlk. Woody vine. 

Talisia nervosa Radlk. Small tree with very large, pinnate leaves. 



NO. 8 FLORA OF liARRO (OI.OKADO ISLAND STANDLKV 23 

RHAMNACEAE. Buckthorn Family 

Gouania lupuloides (I..) l'rl)an. Woodj- vine. 

Gouania polygama (Jacq.) IVhan. Jaboncillo. Called " cliewstick "' in the 
West Indies. The stems when chewed produce lather. 

VITACEAE. Grape Family 

Cissus salutaris H. R. K. Woody vine witii 3-foli(ilatc leaves and small red 
flowers. 

Cissus sicyoides L. \'ine with simple leaves. The inflorescences of this 
species arc fretjuently distorted hy a smut, Mycnsyrinx Cissi. 

Vitis tiliaefolia Humb. & Bonpl. Grape. Uva, Bejuco de agua. The fruit 
is small and very sour. 

TILIACEAE. Basswood Family 

Apeiba aspera Aubl. Tree with entire leaves. Fruit resembling a sea-urchin, 
and covered with stiff spines. 

Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. Peine de mico, Cortezo. Leaves finely dentate. 

Belotia panamensis Pittier. Tree with very showy flowers, the sepals pink, 
the petals violet ; fruit compressed, obcordate, 2-celled. 

Heliocarpus popayanensis H. B. K. Majaguillo. Tree, the small flowers 
panicled; fruits very small, compressed, the margin bearing a row of stiff 
radiating hairs. 

Luehea Seemannii Triana & Planch. Guacimo. A common, very large forest 
tree ; leaves tomentose beneath ; fruit small, woody, obtusely 5-angled. 

Triumfetta lappula L. Cadillo, Cepa de caballo. Shrub bearing small 
globose spiny burs. 

MALVACEAE. Mallow Family 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Chinese hibiscus. Papo, Tapo. Planted at the 
laboratory. 

Pavonia dasypetala Turcz. Shrub with showy pink flowers 4 to 6 cm. long ; 
leaves broad and velvety. 

Pavonia rosea Schlecht. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, with small pink flowers ; 
fruit armed with barbed spines. 

Sida rhombifolia L. Escobilla. One of the most common weedy plants of 
tropical America. 

BOMBACACEAE. Cotton-tree Family 

Bombacopsis Fendleri (Seem.) Pittier. Cedro espinoso. Large tree with 
spiny trunk, flowering in winter when leafless. 

Bombacopsis sessilis (Benth.) Pittier. Ceibo. Trunk unarmed. 

Cavanillesia platanifolia H. B. K. Cuipo, Bongo, Quipo. Large tree with 
smooth swollen trunk; leaves deciduous, 5 or 7-lobed ; flowers small, with red 
petals. The trees are conspicuous when in flower, in late March and early 
April. The wood is very soft and light. 

Ochroma limonensis Rowlee. Balsa. Large or medium-sized tree, the cordate 
leaves 3-angled or shallowly 3-lobed, pale beneath ; flowers large and whitish. 
The balsa trees have one of the lightest woods known. 



24 SMITHSONIAN ]\USCI::LLANK0US COLLECTIUNS \ OL. /S 

STERCULIACEAE. Cacao Family 

Buettneria aculeata Jacq. Espino hueco, Zarza, Rabo de iguana. Prickly 
shrub, often scandent ; young leaves often blotched with silver. 

Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. Panama. Large tree with 3 or 5-lobed 
leaves, stellatc-tomentose beneath ; flowers without petals, th.e large calyx 
5-lobed, reddish ; fruit of 5 carpels, the large brown seeds resembling chestnuts. 
It is from the Indian name of this tree that the Republic of Panama derives 
its name. 

Theobi'Oma cacao L. Cacao. Planted and also naturalized in the forest. 

Theobroma purpureum Pittier. Cacao cimarron, Chocolatillo. Shrub or 
small tree; leaves digitately compound, with 5 large leaflets; fruit small, covered 
with stiff hairs which penetrate the skin readily. 

DILLENIACEAE. Dillenia Family 

Davilla rugosa Poir. Woody vine with rough, obovate, nearly entire leaves 
and yellow flowers. 

Dillenia indica L. Planted at the laboratory. A handsome tree with large 
toothed obovate leaves, very large white flowers, and a huge globular green 
fruit. 

Doliocarpus major Gmcl. Woody vine with glalirous but punctate leaves. 

OCHNACEAE. Ochna Family 

Ouratea Wrightii (Van Ticgh.) Riley. Shrub with narrow lustrous leaves; 
flowers yellow, in terminal panicles ; fruits several, black, borne on a red disk. 

HYPERICACEAE. St. Johnswort Family 

Vismia ferruginea H. B. K. Sancre de pkrro. Shrub with ovate entire leaves, 
brownish beneath. The sap turns red upon exposure to the air. 

CLUSIACEAE. Clusia Family 

Calophyllum longifolium Willd. Maria. Large tree with very handsome, 
narrow, oblong leaves, 30 cm. long or larger ; sap yellowish. 

Clusia rosea L. Copev. Tree; leaves thick, nearly as l)road as long; flowers 
pink, waxy ; fruit a leathery fleshy capsule ; sap milky, sticky. 

Rheedia madruno (H. B. K.) Planch. & Triana. Cerillo, Tome, Machari. 
Tree with oblong to elliptic, acuminate leaves. 

Symphonia globulifera L. f. Cerillo. Tree with small dblong-lanceolate 
leaves. 

Tovomitopsis nicaraguensis (Oerst.) Triana & Planch. Shrub or small 
tree ; flowers small, whitish. 

VIOLACEAE. Violet Family 

Hybanthus anomalus ( H. B. K.) Standi. Shrub with alternate leaves. 
Rinorea squamata Blake. Molenillo. Shrub with opposite leaves. 
Rinorea sylvatica (Seem.) Kuntze. 



NO. 8 FLORA OF liARRO COLORADO ISLAND — STANDLRY 25 

FLACOURTIACEAE. Flacourtia Family 

Casearia arguta IT. B. K. Raspa-lengua. Shrub. 

Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urban. Palo de la ckuz. 

Casearia nitida (L.) Jacq. Raspa-lengua. 

Casearia sylvestris Swartz. Shrub with entire leaves. 

Hasseltia floribunda II. B. K. Raspa-lengua. Small tree with oblong to 
elliptic, coarsely serrate, glabratc leaves, and small white flowers. 

Oncoba laurina (Presl) Warb. Guavo cimaurun, Cahbonero. Small tree with 
spiny globose fruit. 

TURNERACEAE. Turnera Family 

Turnera panamensis I'rban. Shrub with lance-ol)long leaves and yellow 
flowers. 

PASSIFLORACEAE. Passionflower Family 

Passiflora auriculata H. B. K. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 3-lobed or subentire. 
Passiflora vitifolia H. B. K. Guate-guate. A very showy species, a woody 
vine, with large, deep red flowers. 

CARICACEAE. Papaya Family 

Carica papaya L. Papaya. Planted at the laboratory; also wild or 
naturalized. 

BEGONIACEAE. Begonia Family 

Begonia filipes Benth. A small and inconspicuous plant. 

CACTACEAE. Cactus Family 

Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw. An epiphytic spineless plant with large 
white flowers. 

LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife Family 

Adenaria floribunda H. B. K. Fruta de pavo. Shrub with entire, opposite, 
nearly sessile leaves. 

LECYTHIDACEAE. Brazilnut Family 

Grias Fendleri Seem. Tree with large sessile leaves, entire or nearly so. 

Gustavia superba Berg. Memdrillo. Medium-sized tree with few branches ; 
leaves 30 to 100 cm. long, serrate; flowers about 10 cm. broad, white; fruit 
edible. Common. 

RHIZOPHORACEAE. Mangrove Family 

Cassipourea elliptica Poir. Huesito, Limoncillo. Shrub or small tree with 
glabrous entire opposite leaves. 

COMBRETACEAE. Combretum Family 

Terminalia Hayesii Pittier. Amarillo real. A common large tree ; leaves 
nbovate, entire ; flowers minute, green, in long spikes. 



26 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

MYRTACEAE. Myrtle Family 

Calycolpus Warscewiczianus Berg. Guayabillo. Slender shrub with pink or 
wliitish flowers. 

Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry. A South American shrub, planted at 
tlie laboratory. 

Psidium guajava L. Guava. Guayaba. Frequent in open places. 

MELASTOMACEAE. Meadowbeauty Family 

Clidemia petiolata (Rich.) DC. Shrub. 

Conostegia bracteata Triana. Shrub. 

Conostegia speciosa Naud. Dos caras, Raspa-lengua, Fruta de pava. 
Shrub. 

Heterotrichum octonum (Bonpl.) DC. Shrub with 7 or 9-nerved, broadly 
ovate leaves. 

Miconia argentea (Swartz) DC. Dos caras, Canillo, Papelillo. Common 
shrub or small tree, with large broad leaves very white beneath. 

Miconia Beurlingii Triana. 

Miconia lacera (Humb. & Bonpl.) Naud. Common shrub. 

Miconia nervosa (Smith) Triana. 

Miconia impetiolaris (Swartz) Don. Dos caras, Oreja de mula. Leaves 
large, brownish beneath, sessile. 

Miconia lonchophylla Naud. 

Mouriria parvifolia Benth. Arracheche. Shrub, glabrous throughout, with 
sessile entire ovate leaves and small axillary flowers. 

Ossaea diversifolia (Naud.) Cogn. Fruta de pava. Shrub with pink or 
reddish flowers and small, black or purple fruit. 

Ossaea micrantha (Swartz) Macfad. 

Tibouchina longifolia (Vahl) Benth. Herb with small white flowers. 

ONAGRACEAE. Evening-primrose Family 

Jussiaea suffruticosa L. A common herb with yellow flowers, growing in 
wet places. 

ARALIACEAE. Ginseng Family 

Dendropanax arboreum (L.) Decaisne & Planch. Vaquero. Small tree with 
entire or 3-lobed leaves. 

Didymopanax Morototoni (Aubl.) Decaisne & Planch. Mangabe, Gar- 
GORAN, Pava. Large tree ; leaves digitately compound, with 7 to 10 long-stalked 
entire acuminate leaflets, pale-tomentose beneath. Common. 

Nothopanax Guilfoylei (Cogn. & Marche) Merrill. Planted at the laboratory. 
Shrub with pinnate white-margined leaves. 

MYRSINACEAE. Myrsine Family 

Ardisia compressa 11. B. K. Shrub with white or pinkish flowers and black 
juicy fruit. 

Ardisia myriodonta Standi. Described from Barro Colorado. A small shrub. 

Stylogyne laevis (Oerst.) Mez. Glal)rous shrub with thick entire leaves; 
flowers white or pinkish, the branches of the i>anicle bright red. 

Stylogyne ramiflora (Oerst.) Mez. 



NO. 8 FLORA OF BARRO COLORADO ISLAND STANDLF.Y 2/ 

SAPOTACEAE. Sapodilla Family 

Chrysophyllum cainito L. Star-api'Lk. Caimito. Large tree; leaves covered 
beneath with silky golden-brown hairs ; fruit edible. Common forest tree. 

LOGANIACEAE. Logania Family 

Spigelia Humboldtiana Cham. & Schlccht. A small Iierb. 

Strychnos darienensis Seemt Woody vine. 

Strychnos panamensis Seem. Canjura, Fruta de murcielago. Woody vine 
with nearly glabrous, entire leaves ; fruit large, globose, with hard shell. 

Strychnos toxifera Benth. A very hairy vine. This species furnishes curare 
poison, used by the Indians of Panama and elsewhere for poisoning their arrows. 

GENTIANACEAE. Gentian Family 

Leiphaimos simplex (Griseb.) Standi. A small saprophyte, without any 
green coloration, the slender stem bearing a single pale blue flower ; common 
in dark wet forest. 

APOCYNACEAE. Dogbane Family 

Odontadenia speciosa Benth. Negrillo. Woody vine with large yellow 
flowers. 

Prestonia obovata Standi. Woody vine with glabrous obovate leaves. 

Tabernaemontana grandiflora Jacq. Huevo de gato, Lechuga, Venenillo. 
Glabrous shrub with yellow flowers about 5 cm. long. 

Thevetia nitida (H. B. K.) A. DC. Cojon de gato, Lavaperro, Huevo de 
tigre. Shrub or small tree with thick obovate leaves, yellow flowers, and 
bright red fruit. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE. Milkweed Family 

Asclepias curassavica L. Nino muerto, Pasorin. Herb with red and orange 
flowers. The only species of Asclepias found in the region. 

Vincetoxicum pinguifolium Standi. A herbaceous vine, known only from 
Barro Colorado. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. Morning-glory Family 

Maripa panamensis Hemsl. Large glabrous w^oody vine with oblong to 
ovate leaves. 

Rivea campanulata (L.) House. Batatilla. Large vine with broadly cor- 
date leaves ; flowers pink, 7 to 8 cm. long. 

The genus Ipomoca must occur on the island, but I have no record of it. 

BORAGINACEAE. Borage Family 

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham. Laurel. Tree with stellate-pubes- 
cent leaves and small but showy, white flowers. The nodes are often swollen, 
and inhabited by ants. 

Tournefoitia obscura A. DC. Small woodv vine. 



28 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

VERBENACEAE. Verbena Family 

Petrea volubilis Jacq. Viuda, Flor de mayo, Flor de la cruz. Large woody 
vine with very showy racemes of purple-blue flowers. 

MENTHACEAE. Mint Family 

Coleus Blumei Benth. Colei's. Pompolluda, Chontadura. Called by the 
West Indians " Jacob's-coat." Planted at the laboratory. 
Hyptis capitata Jacq. Suspiro de monte. A weedy herb. 
Salvia occidentalis Swartz. A small weedy herb with minute blue flower.s 

SOLANACEAE. Potato Family 

Capsicum annuum L. Pepper. Chile, Aji. Planted at the laboratory. 

Capsicum macrophyllum (H. B. K.) Standi. Pintamora de monte. Large 
coarse herb with bright red, cherry-like fruit. 

Cestrum panamense Standi. Small tree with i)ale green, tubular flowers. 

Lycianthes Maxonii Standi. Nearly glabrous, erect shrub with small violet 
flowers. The typical form of the species is known only from Barro Colorado, 
but a variety occurs in the forests beyond Panama City. 

Solanum allophyllum (Miers) Standi. Hierra de callinazo, Hierba ga- 
LLOTA. Herb with entire or lobed leaves. 

Solanum bicolor Willd. Unarmed shrub with long-stalked cymes of white 
flowers. 

Solanum diversifolium Schlecht. Friega-plato, Huevo de gato. Called by 
the Barbadians " susumba." Erect prickly shrub. 

Solanum parcebarbatum Bitter. Nearly glabrous, unarmed shrub. For this 
I have been given in Panama the name " sauco," but that name belongs properly' 
to the genus Saiiibiicits. 

Solanum scabrum Vahl. Friega-plato, Arana-gato. Large, very prickly, 
woody vine. 

Solanum sp. Only imperfect material is available ; probably an undescribed 
species. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE. Figwort Family 

Scoparia dulcis L. Escobilla amarga. Called "sweet broom" by the 
West Indians. Herbaceous or suffrutescent weed, with very small, white flowers. 

Stemodia parviflora Ait. Small herb witii blue flowers. 

Torenia Crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schlecht. Small weedy herb with blue-purple 
flowers. 

BIGNONIACEAE. Bignonia Family 

Adenocalymna flos-ardeae Pittier. Woody vine, the leaflets with large 
yellow glands on the lower surface. 

Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) II. P>. K. Leaflets covered with minute 
scales ; flc)wers pink and white. 

Arrabidaea pachycalyx Sprague. Leaflets white-tomentose beneath ; flowers 
purple, small but in large panicles and very showy. 

Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers. Reported by Dodge. Nearly glabrous 
vine witli pale purple flowers 5 to 8 cm. long. 



NO. 8 FI.OKA OK I'.ARRO (nl.OKADO ISLAND STANDI.KV 29 

Jacaranda copaia Don. Palo de nun.\. Tree with Iwicc-pinnatc leaves and 
large, bluisli, very showy flowers. 

Macfadyena uncinata (Meyer) DC. luisily rccnonized by the sharp hooks 
terminating the tendrils ; llowers pale yellow. 

Paragonia pyramidata (Rich.) Bur. Woody vine; leaflets minntcly Icpidote 
beneath ; flowers pink, 6 to 7.5 cm. long. 

Petastoma patelliferum (.Sclilecht.) Miers. Reported by Dodge. Glabrate 
vine with purple flowers about -i cm. long. 

Phryganocydia corymbosa (\cnt.) Bur. Nearly glabrous vine with handsome, 
Iiright pink flowers 6 to 9 cm. long. 

Tabebuia guayacan (Seem.) Hemsl. Guayacan. Tree with digitatcly 
compound leaves and large yellow flowers. 

Tabebuia pentaphylla (L.) Hemsl. Roble, Roble de sabana. Tree with 
digitatcly compound, minutely lepidote leaves; flowers varying from pale to 
deep pink. When in full flower, this is one of the most beautiful of Central 
American trees. 

GESNERIACEAE. Gesneria Family 

Achimenes panamensis (Seem.) Hemsl. Small herb with white flowers. 

Columnea purpurata Hanst. Rare. Coarse suffrutescent plant with large, 
very hairy leaves, and bright red, axillary inflorescence. 

Drymonia spectabilis (H. B. K.) Mart. Epiphytic shrub; corolla dull 
dark red. 

Kohleria tubiflora (Cav.) Hanst. Herb with scarlet flowers. 

Tussacia Friedrichsthaliana Hanst. Small herb with large orange flowers. 

PINGUICULACEAE. Butterwort Family 

Utricularia mixta Barnh. Small floating aquatic plant, in quiet water ; flowers 
j'ellow. 

ACANTHACEAE. Acanthus Family 

Aphelandra Sinclairiana Nees. Showy shrub with bright red flowers in 
dense bracted spikes, the bracts orange-red. 

Aphelandra tetragona (Vahl) Nees. Shrub with red flowers, the bracts 
small and green. 

Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urban. Common herbaceous weed with 
small purple flowers. 

Blechum panamense T.indau. Herb with purple flowers. 

Chaetochlamys panamensis Lindau. Erect herb with showy purple flowers. 

Mendoncia retusa Turrill. Vine; flowers white, with purple veins; fruit 
a black plumlike drupe. 

RUBIACEAE. Madder Family 

Alibertia edulis (L. Rich.) A. Rich. Lagartillo, Trompito. Called "wild 
guava" by the West Indians. Shrub with, sessile glabrous lance-oblong leaves; 
flowers small, clustered, sessile; fruit globose, 2.5 cm. in diameter. Young 
seedling plants, which are very common on the island, have the leaves hand- 
somely striped or mottled with purple and pink. 



30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

Bertiera guianensis Aubl. Sliruh with small, bright blue fruit. 

Borreria laevis ' (Lam.) Grisel). Small weedy herb. 

Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) Schum. Reported by Dodge. An herb with small 
wliite flowers. 

Borreria ocymoides (Burm.) DC. Small amiual herb. 

Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) Rich. Ipecac. Raicilla. A small glabrate 
plant, about 30 cm. high; leaves oblong; flowers small, white, in a single terminal 
head. Ipecac is obtained from the thickened roots. 

Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl. Shrub with very hairy leaves; flowers 
in a dense head, subtended by showy, bright red bracts. 

Faramea occidentalis (L.) Rich. Huesito. Shrub with white flowers. In its 
general appearance and in its fruit this plant sugests coffee, to which it is 
related. 

Geophila herbacea (L.) Schum. Creeping herb with heart-shaped leaves and 
small white flowers; fruit juicy, red or purple-black. 

Guettarda foliacea Standi. Shrul) with globose red fruit. 

Hamelia nodosa Mart. & Gal. Shrub with orange-red flowers. 

Hemidiodia ocimifolia (Willd.) Schum. A weedy herb. 

Isertia Haenkeana DC. Canelito. Showy shrub with large leaves and 
dense panicles of bright yellow and red, tubular flowers. 

Ixora coccinea L. Buquet de novia. Shrub with red flowers, planted at 
the laboratory. 

Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Small herb with linear leaves and white or pinkish 
flowers. 

Palicourea guianensis Aubl. Shrub ; flowers yellow, in a terminal thyrse, its 
branches red or orange. 

Pentagonia macrophylla Benth. Hoja de murcielago. Shrub with very 
large, obovate leaves. 

Pentagonia pubescens Standi. Common shrub. 

Posoqueria latifolia (Rudge) Roem. & Schult. Boca vieja, Borajo, Fruta 
DE MONO. Large shrub or small tree with broad thick leaves ; flowers tubular, 
very slender, 12 to 16 cm. long. 

Psychotria brachiata Swartz. The species of this genus are common shrubs 
of the forest. 

Psychotria calophylla Standi. Reported by Dodge. 

Psychotria chagrensis .Standi. 

Psychotria cuspidata Bredem. 

Psychotria emetica L. f. Raicilla macho, Ixaicilla. Small shrub, with 
axillary white flowers and lilue fruit. The roots yield a kind of ipecac. 

Psychotria granadensis Benth. 

Psychotria grandis Swartz. 

Psychotria horizontalis Swartz. 

Psychotria involucrata Swartz. 

Psychotria limonensis Krause. 

Psychotria marginata Swartz. 

Psychotria micrantha H. B. K. 

Psychotria patens Swartz. Garricillo. 

Psychotria Pittieri Standi. Fruit blue. 

Psychotria racemosa (Aubl.) Willd. b'ruil s-cclled : it is -'-celled in the 
otheV species. 



NO. 8 IM.ORA Ol' llARRi) ( i )I.()K.\1>() ISLAND STANDI.F.V 3I 

Randia armata (Swartz) DC. Rosktii.i.o. Sjiiiiy sliriili witli large vvliitc 
flowers. 

Rudgea fimbriata (I'cnth.) Standi. Slinih with suhsi^'ssik' leaves. 

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. Woody vine anued with hooked spines; 
dowers yellowish, fragrant, in dense globose heads. 

CUCURBITACEAE. Gourd Family 

Anguria Warscewiczii Hook. f. Cdahrous vine with 3-foliolate leaves; 
tiowcrs small, with bright red petals. 

Cayaponia Poeppigii Cogn. bruit small, globose, 6-sceded. 

Cucurbita pepo L. Squ.vsh. Calabazo, Sapuvo. Planted at the laboratory. 

Gurania Seemanniana Cogn.? Bejuco imcador. Large herbaceous vine with 
red intloresccncc. 

Gurania suberosa Standi. Type from Barro Colorado. Large woody vine, 
climbing on high trees ; stems covered with corky bark ; flowers small, red, 
borne on the naked stems near the ground. The leaves have not been collected. 

Luffa cylindrica (L.) Rocm. Spongkcjoird. Calap.azo. Vine with large 
yellow flowers. The interior of the fruit resembles a sponge, and may be used 
in the same manner. 

Melothria guadalupensis (Spreng.) Cogn. Saxdillita. Slender vine with 
small yellow flowers. The fruit resembles a small watermelon, and has the 
odor of cucumber. 

Posadaea sphaerocarpa Cogn. BrujitO'. Herbaceous vine with a globose 
gourdlike fruit. 

Sicydium tamnifolium (H. B. K.) Cogn. Leaves nearly entire, softly 
pubescent ; flowers minute, in large panicles ; fruits small, black. 

ASTERACEAE. Aster Family 

Baccharis trinervis (Lam.) Pers. Shrub with dirty-white flowers. 

Bidens pilosa L. Cadillo, Sirvulaca. Called " Spanish needles " by the 
West Indians. 

Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak. Leaves white-tomentose beneath, in a basal 
rosette ; rays short, white to red-purple. 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Small weedy herb. 

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. Small weedy herb with pale purple or pink, 
discoid heads. 

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Tabaquillo. Coarse herb with greenish 
discoid heads. 

Erigeron bonariensis L. Tabaquillo. Weedy herb with linear leaves. 

Erigeron spathulatus Vahl. Weedy herb with spatulate or obovate leaves. 

Eupatorium macrophyllum L. Coarse herb with greenish white heads. 

Eupatorium microstemon Cass. Small annual with purple heads. 

Eupatorium odoratum L. Paleca, Hiei^ba de chiva. Called " Christmas- 
bush " by the West Indians. Large herb or shrub with lavender flowers. 

Eupatorium Sinclairii Bentb. Weedy herb with purplish flowers. 

Mikania leiostachya Bentb. Herbaceous vine ; heads in spikes. 

Mikania micrantha H. B. K. Herbaceous vine; heads small, fragrant, whitish, 
in cymes. 



32 SMITflSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78 

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. Contragavilana. Coarse herb with yellow 
heads. 

Pluchea purpurascens (Swartz) DC. Viscid herb with purple heads; growing 
in shallow water at edge of lake. 

Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. Glabrous annual with discoid heads 
of bronze flowers ; rare here. 

Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. Escobilla blanca, Chicoria. 
Weedy herb with pale purple heads. 

Rolandra fruticosa (L.) Kuntze. Coarse herb with i-flowered white heads; 
leaves white-tomentose beneath. 

Tridax procumbens L. Weedy procumbent annual herb with pale yellow 
heads. 

Vernonia canescens H. B. K. Hierba de San Jose. Heads pink or white. 

Vemonia cinerea (L.) Less. Small weedy herb with purple heads; natural- 
ized from the Old World. 

Vernonia patens H. B. K. Lengua de vaca, Lengua de buey. Shrub with 
white heads. 

Wulffia baccata (L. f.) Kuntze. Arching shrub witli rough leaves; heads 
2 cm. broad, with small yellow rays. 



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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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